China; Yuan Dynasty CE 1279-1368

Emperor (Khaishan) Wuzong (CE 1281-1311) R: CE 1308-1311 nienhao Chi-da

AE 42 mm, 20.75 g, CE 1310
Schjöth 1099
O: Da yuan tung pao in Mongol seal-script
R: plain

Ex: Frank S. Robinson

According to Ann Paludan, Khaishan was “…a military hero from the steppes,…Utterly untrained in state affairs, he behaved like a nomadic chieftain. Bestowing honours and titles indiscriminantly, he appointed actors, butchers, Buddhist and Daoist clergy as ministers of state, and artisans as ‘dukes’ or ‘councillors’. Wildly extravagant, he lavished money on his palaces and Buddhist temples, supplementing revenue by selling licenses in the state monopolies and tripling the amount of paper money.” (p. 156)