ISLAMIC/Arab-Byzantine "Pseudo-Byzantine" in style of Constans II c. CE 670-690

AE Fals, 21 mm 2.3 g,  minted in undetermined locales of Syria and Palestine prior to 'Abdalmalik's reforms of the late 690's.

Album 3504 of type similar to  SB 1007

what inscriptions appear, appear to be blundered and are only representative of the typology of the original coin.

ISLAMIC/Arab-Byzantine "Pseudo-Byzantine" in style of Constans II c. CE 670-690

AE Fals 21 x 18 mm, 3.64 g, minted in undetermined locales of Syria and Palestine prior to 'Abdalmalik's reforms of the late 690's.

Album 3504 of type similar to  SB 1007

what inscriptions appear, appear to be blundered and are only representative of the typology of the original coin.


BYZANTINE; Anonymous Bronze Coinage Class K, attributed to Alexius I Comnenus CE 1081-1118

AE Follis, 26 mm, 4.57 g, 6h

SB 1901


R: Mary facing

no visible inscriptions likely overstruck on Class J SB 1900 which were sometimes overstruck on folles of Nicephorus III of the type of SB 1888 which were themselves overstruck on Class H and so on.

BYZANTINE; Anonymous Bronze Coinage; Class I attributed to Nicephorus III Botaniates CE 1078-1081

AE Follis, 22mm, 3.83g, 6h

SB 1889

O: facing bust of JC, IC to left XC to right

R: latin cross with X at center

BYZANTINE; Anonymous Bronze Coinage Class H attributed to Michael VII Ducas CE 1071-1078

AE Follis 26 mm, 7.04 g, 6h

SB 1880

O: facing bust of JC, IC on left XC on right

R: patriarchal cross

BYZANTINE; Anonymous Bronze Coinage; Class C attributed to Michael IV CE 1034-1041

AE Follis 25 mm, 6.78 g 5h

SB 1825

O: +EMMANOVHΛ, half length fig of JC stg facing wearing nimbus in field to left IC to right XC

R: jeweled cross with pellet in each extremity in the angles IC-XC/NI-KA


BYZANTINE; Constans II CE 641-668

AE Follis, 21 mm, 4.61 g, 1h, Constantinople mint, Yr. 2=CE 642-643

SB 1001

O: Constans beardless stg facing wearing crown and chlamys and holding long cross and globus cruciger


R:  XP above M, M is between O/Φ/A on l and N/ε/O/ς, above ANA in ex officina letter followed by regnal year numerals which are not visible but appear to be II per noted combinations.

BYZANTINE; Justin II & Sophia CE 565-578

AE Follis, 33 mm, 15.17 g, 7h, Constantinople mint, Yr. 7=CE 571-572

SB 360 v

O: Justin and Sophia enthroned facing DNVSTI[----].

R: large M with Δ underneath ANNO on l, V/II on r, CON in ex.

BYZANTINE; Anonymous Class B attributed to Romanus III Argyrus CE 1028-1034

AE Follis 32 mm, 10.17 g.

SB 1823

O: Jesus facing with nimbus, IC on left XC on right

R: cross on three steps, bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE

BYZANTINE; Isaac II Angelus CE 1185-1195

Bi Aspron Trachy, 21 mm, 3.54 g 5h.

SB 2003

O: Mary enthroned MP/ϴV

R: Isaac stg facing, only legend visible is on right Δε/ C/T

BYZANTINE; Maurice Tiberius CE 582-602

AE Follis, 33 mm, 11.02 g, 1h, Cyzicus mint yr X=CE 591-592

SB 518 v barbarous blundered legend

O: OИMABAI-TIbERIPPC, helmeted bust facing

R: lg. M   A or B beneath, ANNO on left and X on r and KYZ in ex.

BYZANTINE; Justin II & Sophia CE 565-578

AE Follis, 32 mm, 14.93 g, 6h, Antioch/Theopolis mint, Yr. 11=CE 575-576

SB 379

O: Justin and Sophia enthroned facing blundered legend around.

R: large M with Г underneath ANNO on l, XI on r, ThEUP in ex.

BYZANTINE; Justinian I CE 527-565

AE Follis, 35 mm, 17.31 g, 5h, Nicomedia A mint, Yr. 22=CE 548-549

SB 201

O: DNIVSTINIANVSPPAVC, facing militaristic bust

R: large M with +above/NIKO in ex. Officina A under M, ANNO on left and X/X/II on right.

BYZANTINE; Romanus I Lecapenus CE 920-944

AE Follis, 25 mm, 4.39 g

SB 1760

O: [RωMA]n bASILEVS RωM’  bust of Romanus facing

R: +RωMA/n εn ϴεωbA/SILEVS Rω/MAIωn

In four lines.


ROMAN EGYPT/ Diocletian CE 284-296 (305)

AE Tetradrachm, 19 mm, 8.42 g, Alexandria mint  Regnal Year 6= CE 289-290

Emmett 4046 (1)

O: AKГOVAΛΔIOKΛHTIANOCCEB, laur draped bust right.

R: Elpis stg. l holding flower, L in left fiels and S in r with star in upper r field

ROMAN EGYPT/ Galerius as Caesar CE 293-296

AE Tetradrachm, 18 mm, 6.86 g, Alexandria mint  Regnal Year 1= 1 March to 28 August CE 293

Emmett 4207 (2)

O: ГΑΛMAΞIMIANOCK, laur draped bust right.

R: Athena std l on throne holding Nike and spear, L in left field A in right field and Г in ex for officina

ROMAN EGYPT; Maximianus CE 285-296 (310)

AE Tetradrachm, 18 mm, 8.32 g, Alexandria mint  Regnal Year 4= CE 288-289

Emmett 4108 (1)

O: AKMOVAMAΞIMIANOCCEB, laur draped bust right.

R: eagle stg l with hd r with wreath in beack star in upper l field L in lower l field Δ in r field.

ROMAN EGYPT/ Maximianus CE 285-296 (310)

AE Tetradrachm, 18 mm, 6.67 g, Alexandria mint  Regnal Year 3= CE 287-288

Emmett 4147 (1)

O: AKMOVAMAΞIMIANOCCEB, laur draped bust right.

R: Nike adv. R holding a wreath, star behind, L Г

BYZANTINE; Alexius III Angelus-Comnenus CE 1195-1203

Billon Aspron Trachy, 27 mm, 2.73 g, 6h, Constantinople mint

SB 2011-2013 v.

O: bust of Jesus facing beardless wearing nimbus, raising r. hand in benediction in l. scroll. IC on left XC on r.

R: ΑΛΕ[----], Alexius on l, Constantine bearded and nimbate on r both stg facing.


ROMAN/Constantius I as Caesar CE 293-305

AR Argenteus, 18 mm, 3.14 g, 6h, Heraclea (3rd officina) mint CE 295
RIC Heraclea 5 (R3)
RCV 13940
RSC 242b


R: the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod altar with military camp in bkgd, PROVIDEN-TIA AVGG/HГ in ex.


ROMAN/Maximianus CE 286-310

AE Antoninianus, 22mm, 4.55 g, Lugdunum mint, CE 290-291

RCV 13172

RIC 422

O: IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, rad, cuir bust r.

R: SALVS--AVGG/ C, Salus stg right with snake

Ex: Savoca Numismatik GmbH, 14th Blue Auction, lot 1194 (28/29-12-2018) 

Ex: Warren Esty


Greece/Seleucid; Philip I Philadelphus BCE c. 95/4-perhaps 76/5

AR Tetradrachm, 26 mm, 15.6g  12h., Antioch mint, c. after BCE 88/87
 SC 2463.3i
SMA 449

 O: diademed hd of Philip I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border, weak strike evident.

 R: Zeus std l., holding Nike and sceptre, laurel wreath border. [Β]ΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ [Φ]ΙΛΙΠΠOV in two lines on the r.,
[Ε]ΠΙΦAΝΟVΣ [ΦΙ]ΛΑΔΕΛΦOV in two lines on l. outer left controls not fully visible.

 Primary Control: P in ex.

 Frozen control under throne.


ROMAN EGYPT; Otho, January to April CE 69

AE Obol 18.5 mm, 4.58 g, 12h, Alexandria mint

Milne 371

Emmett 192 (R2)

Dattari 331

O: MAPKOϴΩN KAIΣΣEBAVT, laureate bust right

R: LA Canopus of Isis stg r, year designation to right


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos IV Epiphanes BCE 175-164 Brockage

AE 16 mm, 3.47 g, Ake Ptolemais mint  BCE 175-c. 173/2

SC 1477.2j (this coin illustrated on page 60 of SC Vol. II Part II "fig. 9" and identified as 2k).

Text in SC reads "Antiochus IV brockage demonstrating that central cavities and circular scratches were on the flan prior to striking" coin is also mentioned in the text above the photo that accompanies the description.

Control is definitely M (2j) rather then the M monogram as shown in 2k.

ex: CNG
ex: MNL Collection (was identified as Seleukos IV but it clearly is not)
ex: Oliver Hoover Collection, Burlington, ON per SC


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos II BCE 261-246

AR Drachm, 18 mm, 4.14 g, 6h, Aï Khanoum mint, c. BCE 261-256

SC 619v.

ESM 708-710

SMAK A2A1D-1 (this coin illustrated plate 63)

HGC 9, 246e (R3)

O: diad hd r of elderly Antiochos I

R: BAΣIΛEΩΣ on right ANTIOXOY on left with control Δ on inner left below arrow.


Ex: CNG e-sale 08/13/2001, lot 63743 (sold as Antiochos I by CNG et al)



Euro Coins of the Baltic States 2011-2017/ €2 Examples

Estonia, 2011(mint of Finland) LD-K8 11,000,000 minted

Latvia, 2014 (State mints of Baden-Wurttemburg, Stuttgart) LC-K8, 20,000,000 minted

Lithuania, 2017 (Vilnius Mint) LB-K8, mint run n/a yet.


IRAN/Sasanid; Khusro II CE 590/1-628// Persian Occupation of Egypt CE 618-628

AE 12 Nummia, 18mm, 7.42 g, 6h, Alexandria mint.

Göbl VIII/8
SB 855

O: Crowned and cuirassed facing bust of Khosrau II, crown surmounted by cross; star in left field, crescent in right.

R:  Large I B; cross potent on globe between; ΑΛΕΞ. in ex.


GREEK/Seleucid; Alexander I Balas BCE 152-144

AE 18 mm, 7.25 g, 12h, Antioch mint

SC 1790.1a

O: Balas in a Boeotian helmet rt.

R: ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ on r,  AΛEΞANΔPOY on l., Nike left crowning name and grain ear on outer left. No controls noted.




GREEK; Mysia, Pergamon c. BCE 150-140

AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm 27mm, 12.54 g 12h.

Kleiner-Noe Series 22

SNG France ---

O: Cista mystica with serpent; all within ivy wreath

R: Bow-case ornamented with aphlaston between two coiled serpents, their tails intertwined, ΠΕΡ monogram to left, cornucopia to right.

Ex: Warren Esty Ex: Don Hay Collection (TX) 2011


HUNGARY; Arpad Dynasty (Árpád Ház); Bela II (II. Béla magyar király) CE 1131-1141

AR Denar, 12 mm, 0.36 g

Unger 53

O:Cross with circle; pellet in each quarter. (gyöngykörben kereszt, szárai között pontok, a felirat helyén E és vonalkák)
R: Cross within circle; pellet in each quarter (belsõ vonalkörben kereszt, szárai között ékek, a két vonalkör között vonások)


ENGLAND/Plantagenet; John CE 1199-1216

AR Short Cross Penny cut half 0.63 g, possibly Chichester or Durham mints, Pieres Moneyer

SCBC 1351

O: [henr]icvs R-EX  facing portrait of John (5b)


thanks to Tom Redmayne of the Yorkshire Numismatic Society for helping identify the moneyer.


Canada Polymer Notes Series 2012-2013

 $5 Series 2013

$10 Series 2013

$20 Series 2012

The smaller denominations saw greater use from the folds apparent in the bills. The $20 less use was apparent but as with all Canadian and British polymer notes we've experienced, it is difficult to lay them out so they're flat on a surface. Once folded or bent they tend to maintain that shape.

Unfortunately, the USA and Eurozone are still committed to more easily forged paper notes with no inference that they will eventually convert to this harder to forge technology.



ISLAMIC/Iran; Qajar; Muhammad Shah CE 1834-1848 محمد شاه قاجار

AR Qiran 17mm, 4.06 g, Isfahan mint, no discernable date but possibly AH 1255 as these are most abundant..

Album 2913

O: Muhammad Anbiya' Shahanshah (Muhammad King of the Prophets)
R: "struck at Isfahan dar as-Sultanah" date is off the planchet.

ISLAMIC/Hafsid Anonymous c. AH 700/ CE 1300

AR Dirham, 1.3 g, 16 mm, possibly Tunis? mint but not legible on this poorly struck example.

Album 514 (S)

According to Album, Hafsid square dirhams "are identical to the Muwahhidun, but are written in square Kufic instead of rounded Naskhi script, but are much coarser than the Muwahhidun Kufic equivalent (cf. A-496A)…." (Album Checklist page 84, 3rd edition).

on the right side photo the three line inscription that appears on square dirhams of the Muwahhidun also appears here "Allah Rubna/Muhammah Rasulna/al-Mahdi Imamna", though much of the inscription is obscured by the poor strike.


BYZANTINE/Constantine VIII Porphyrogenitis CE 913-959 Κωνσταντῖνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος

AE Follis 26 mm, 8.44 g, 5h, Constantinople mint c. CE 945-950

SB 1761

O: +const'basil'rom'
facing bust of Constantine VII with short beard wearing crown and vertical loros, holding akakia and globus cruciger.

R: +const'/enϴeoba/sileus r/omeon
in four lines.

portion of ivory plaque depicting Constantine VII created in Constantinople c. CE 954 and presently part of the Pushkin Museum collection in Moscow.


Britain/Plantagenet; Henry II CE 1154-1189


AR Short Cross Penny (fragmentary), 1.01g, York mint c. CE 1180-1182, Isac as moneyer. Type 1ab

SCBC 1344
North 963

OBS: [hENRI]CVS R EX crowned facing bust holding cruciform scepter

REV: +I[SAC O]N EVERW voided short cross with four pellets in each quarter.

Below is an attempted reconstruction illustrating the missing portions of the fragmentary penny. It appears from the CNG example, that approximately 0.48 g of the coin is missing or about 32% of the total coin.

It is surmised that the "Isaac of York" who is the moneyer of this example, was the prototype of the character of "Isaac of York" in Walter Scott's "Ivanhoe".  It is thought that this Isaac was Jewish ergo the background of Scott's Isaac and his career as a money lender in the story. Ten years after this coin was minted there was a pogrom and massacre of the Jews of York at Clifford's Tower (which is still standing), and it is likely that if this moneyer was in fact Jewish that he met his end at that time,
CE 1190.


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos III BCE 223-187

AR Tetradrachm 28mm,  17.05g, Susa Mint (Pre-Molon) c. BCE 223-222

 SC 1206 (R2)

ESM 380

O: diad hd of Antiochos III r. dotted border

R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r,    ANTIOXOY on l, Apollo std on omphalos testing an arrow r hand on grounded bow

Controls in left field under arrow and right field., test cut at 12 o’clock on obs and 6 o’clock on rev.


Ex: Heritage Auctions Sale 231850, portion of lot 62104 (13 Dec 2018)






BYZANTINE/Heraclius CE 610-641

AE 40 Nummia, 6.08 g, 20 x 25 mm, Sicily mint, c. CE 632-641

SB 884
R. 1450

O: overstruck on coins of Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine of Constantinople dated Yr. 21 or later countermarked on obs with facing busts of Heraclius on l. and Heraclius Constantine on r. with + between their heads.

R: overstruck on rev with monogram 22 and SCs within an oval punch stamped in any position on the rev of the original coin.

ex: W. Esty
ex: Heritage Europe (formerly MPO Auctions) Auction 56 lot 2802 (14 Nov 2017)