Britain/Plantagenet; Henry II CE 1154-1189


AR Short Cross Penny (fragmentary), 1.01g, York mint c. CE 1180-1182, Isac as moneyer. Type 1ab

SCBC 1344
North 963

OBS: [hENRI]CVS R EX crowned facing bust holding cruciform scepter

REV: +I[SAC O]N EVERW voided short cross with four pellets in each quarter.

Below is an attempted reconstruction illustrating the missing portions of the fragmentary penny. It appears from the CNG example, that approximately 0.48 g of the coin is missing or about 32% of the total coin.

It is surmised that the "Isaac of York" who is the moneyer of this example, was the prototype of the character of "Isaac of York" in Walter Scott's "Ivanhoe".  It is thought that this Isaac was Jewish ergo the background of Scott's Isaac and his career as a money lender in the story. Ten years after this coin was minted there was a pogrom and massacre of the Jews of York at Clifford's Tower (which is still standing), and it is likely that if this moneyer was in fact Jewish that he met his end at that time,
CE 1190.


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos III BCE 223-187

AR Tetradrachm 28mm,  17.05g, Susa Mint (Pre-Molon) c. BCE 223-222

 SC 1206 (R2)

ESM 380

O: diad hd of Antiochos III r. dotted border

R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r,    ANTIOXOY on l, Apollo std on omphalos testing an arrow r hand on grounded bow

Controls in left field under arrow and right field., test cut at 12 o’clock on obs and 6 o’clock on rev.


Ex: Heritage Auctions Sale 231850, portion of lot 62104 (13 Dec 2018)






BYZANTINE/Heraclius CE 610-641

AE 40 Nummia, 6.08 g, 20 x 25 mm, Sicily mint, c. CE 632-641

SB 884
R. 1450

O: overstruck on coins of Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine of Constantinople dated Yr. 21 or later countermarked on obs with facing busts of Heraclius on l. and Heraclius Constantine on r. with + between their heads.

R: overstruck on rev with monogram 22 and SCs within an oval punch stamped in any position on the rev of the original coin.

ex: W. Esty
ex: Heritage Europe (formerly MPO Auctions) Auction 56 lot 2802 (14 Nov 2017)


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos III BCE 222-187

AR Tetradrachm, 27 mm, 16.88 g, 12h, Uncertain Mint 67 in  N. Mesopotamia, Perhaps Carrhae probably BCE c. 212-210.

SC 1118 (R2) 
O: more mature portrait of Antiochos III 

R: Β]ΑΣΙΛΕΩ[Σ on r,    A]NTIOXOY on l, Apollo std on omphalos testing an arrow r hand on grounded bow.

 Control on outer left MTP monogram

 Test cut on reverse.

Ex: Heritage Auctions Sale 231845, portion of lot 62101 (8 Nov 2018)


ROMAN EGYPT/Maximianus CE 286-310

Potin Tetradrachm; 7.64 g, 19 mm, 12h, Alexandria mint, Regnal Yr 7= CE 291-292

Emmett 4147 (1)

O: Laur draped bust of Maximianus r, MAΞIMIANOC CEB

R: Nike flying r holding a wreath L  Z

ROMAN EGYPT/Diocletian CE 285-305

Potin Tetradrachm; 8.96 g, 20 mm, 12h, Alexandria mint, Regnal Yr 7= CE 290-291

Emmett 4087 (1)

O: Laur bust of Diocletian r, ΔIOKΛHTIANOC CEB

R: Zeus standing left holding patera & scepter with eagle on the lower left L  Z


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos VIII “Philometor” BCE 121-96

AE 18 mm, 5.61 g, 12h, Antioch mint SE 202/BCE 111-110

SC 2308 (R, 17 known examples)

O: radiate hd of Antiochos r dotted border

R: [ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ] /A]NTIOXOY on right, [ΦI]ΛOMHTOPOΣ on l., Eagle stg l., BΣ underneath for SE date.

Control on outer left.

This is an example of the rare and elusive PHILOMETOR bronze of Antiochos VIII issued for a short time during SE 202. SC remarks that the epithet is used without irony despite his having killed his mother a decade before.

Petr Vesely has discussed this issue and the known examples on his website found http://seleukidtraces.info/information/ni_antiochos_philometor.html.

 Knowledge that this epithet was utilized by Antiochos VIII also is noted on an inscription found on Delos that said:

1 βασιλεὺ[ς Ἀντίοχος Ἐ]πιφανὴς
Φιλομήτωρ [Καλλίνικος ὁ ἐγ] βασιλέως
Δημητρίου [καὶ βασιλίσσης] Κ̣λεοπάτρας
Γναῖον Παπ̣[ίριον Γαίου Κά]ρ̣βωνα
5 στρατη̣[γὸν ἀνθύπατον? Ῥωμαίω]ν ἀρετῆς
ἕνεκ[εν καὶ εὐνοίας τῆς εἰς ἑαυ]τόν.
(translation and background below)

Date:   116/5 B.C.
Format:   see key to translations

Carbo, who was Roman consul in 113 B.C., was probably acting as governor of the province of Asia when this statue was set up, but the reason that he was honoured in this way is unknown; see R.Kallet-Marx, "Hegemony to Empire", page 228 ( UC press e-books ).
King [Antiochos] Epiphanes Philometor [Kallinikos, the son] of king Demetrios [and queen] Kleopatra, dedicated this statue of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, [the son of Gaius], the praetor [and (?) proconsul of the Romans], on account of his virtue [and his goodwill towards] the king.


This example is ex Zurqieh (Dubai) 2018.


ISLAMIC/Umayyad; Hisham b. 'Abdal-Malik CE 724-743 هشام بن عبد الملك

AR Dirham 25 mm, 2.92 g, 3h, Wasit mint AH 123/CE 740-741

Album 137


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos III BCE 222-187

AE 11 mm, 1.45 g, 12h, Antioch mint.

SC 1055 (no controls visible)

O: Laureate hd r., of Antiochos III as Apollo, dotted border

R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (on r.) ANTIOXOY (on l.)  Apollo stg l., testing arrow

controls none visible. 

Ex: MNL Collection

GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos III BCE 222-187

AE 15 mm, 3.98 g, 12h, Sardes mint.

SC 983.6  (barbarous style)
HSC 518  (R1-R2)
O: Laureate hd of Apollo r., with corkscrew curls.

R: [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ](on r.) ANTIOXOY (on l.)  Apollo stg l., testing arrow and resting elbow on tall tripod. 

controls none visible. 

Ex: MNL Collection


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochus VII BCE 139-129

AE 10 mm, 1.35 g, Antioch mint

SC 2069, HSC 1106 (R1)

O: Ships ram left.

R: [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ] ANTIOXOY, Pilei surmounted by stars.

Ex: MNL Collection

GREECE/Seleucid; Alexander I Balas BCE 152-145

AE 14 mm, 3.48 g 12h  Antioch mint

SC 1791.1  

O: hd of Dionysus r. dotted border

R: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ above AΛΕΞANΔPOY below, elephant, monograms.

Ex: MNL Collection


SPAIN; Alfonso X el Sabio CE 1252-1284

Bi Noven or Dinero Burgales, 18 mm, 0.86 g, 5h Sevilla mint, c. CE 1252-1258

Cayon 1152

O (on the right): MONETA CASTELLE, castle depicted with S mintmark beneath

R (on the left): ET LEGIONIS lion left.


SPAIN; Alfonso I de Aragon el Batallador CE 1104-1134

Bi. Dinero, 1.02 g, 17 mm, Toledo mint

Cayon 937

O: ANFVS REX bust left.
R: TOLETA with large + in center and stars in the second and fourth quarters (photo depicts coin off by about 90 degrees)


ISLAMIC/Arab-Sasanian; 'Ubaidullah bin Ziyad ( عبيدالله بن زياد) CE 673-683/AH 54-64

AR Dirham, 32 mm, 3.93 g, 3h, BCRA (Basra) mint AH 60/CE 679-680

Album 12
SICA I, 66-75

O: portrait of Khusro II with typical Pahlavi inscription behind head, but two lines in front of face indicate "Ubaidullah bin Ziyad" also in Pahlavi. In lower right quadrant appears the only Arabic
بسم الله

R: fire altar with attendants. Pahlavi inscription on right is the mint BCRA for Basra and on the left is "Shast" for "sixty" which is the Hijri year equivalent to CE 679-680 early in the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Yazid I (CE 680-683) or at the tail end of the reign of Mu'awiya (CE 661-680).

This coin was minted about a year from the famous Battle of Karbala in late CE 680 (AH 61) where Husayn was killed and the date is still marked by Shi'ites during Ashura (10 Muharram). 'Ubaidullah bin Ziyad is an accursed figure in Shi'ite history. He is described by Hugh Kennedy in his "The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates" (London; Longman Group, 1986) as "...more hasty and given to the use of force than his father, but a man whose devotion to the Umayyad cause could not have been doubted." (p. 86)

ex: FSR Auction 106 lot 414

BYZANTINE; Leo VI CE 886-912

AE Follis, 28 mm, 7.54 g, 5h, Constantinople mint.

Sear 1729

O: +LEOn bAS-ILEVSROm' facing portrait of the emperor.

ex: Palladium Numismatics (CA) c. 1991-1999
ex: FSR Auction 106 lot 411 (23 Oct 2018)


GREECE/Seleucid; Seleucus III BCE 226-223

AE 15 mm, 3.78 g, 12h, Antioch mint

SC 923 with unrecorded anchor cm on obs. this cm is also unrecorded in WSM

O: Hd of Seleucus r. dotted border, anchor cm in oval

R: ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ on r, ΣEΛEYKOY on l., control not visible on outer l, Apollo l on omphalos.

ex: MNL Collection


GREECE/Seleucid; Antiochos VII Sidetes BCE 138-129

AE 15 mm, 2.74 g, 9 h, Antioch mint, SE 175/BCE 138-137

SC 2068.3a  (S)

O: lion hd r. dotted border.

R: ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY in two lines on r, EYEPГETOY on l. vertical club. control on outer left above aphlaston symbol below it. Date across lower field EOP

Ex: MNL Collection