Macedon; Alexander III, The Great BCE 336-323

AR Tetradrachm, 17.09g 26mm, Babylon Mint,

posthumous minting, likely under Perdiccas BCE 323-320 though card that came with coin indicated Philip III BCE 323-317 ,

OBS: Head of Herakles/Alexander in lion skin right

REV: Zeus std l on throne with back, his rt leg drawn back feet on a stool holding eagle and sceptre

AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ[Y] to right of throne [BAΣ]ΙΛ[EΩΣ] beneath it.

To left of left leg of Zeus is M and underneath throne is ΛY

Sear 6724v, Müller 1272v

Ex: Ancient Byways

Constantine I CE 307-337

AE 3/4, 2.39g 16mm Minted in TREVERI c. CE 324-330
OBS: Ros. Diad. Draped bust right CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG
REV: soldiers standing beside two standards GLOR-IAEXERC-TVS/TR·S
celator's error variety….this is missing the “I” between the C and T of EXERCITVS.
Ex: Ancient Byways

Misc. 1st Century Roman Countermarks

1 2 3

Two of Tiberius CE 14-37, though one (far left #1) bearing countermarks indicating origin in Moesia, the other "PR" (far right #3) appears to be a countermark from Gaul from the Revolt of Vindex during the civil war of CE 68-69.

1. Undercoin is AE Dupondius of Augustus c. BCE 18-15, 7.23 g.

2. Undercoin is AE of Augustus c. BCE 25 possibly from the mint of Ephesus, 7.65 g. countermarks are AVG, TICÆ & helmet on obs. and dolphin on rev.

3. Undercoin is uncertain. AE Dupondius size, 7.26 g.

Ex: Nemesis

Galba CE 68-69 Provincial Egypt

Billon Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, April 68-15 January 69 [Year 2/CE 29 August 68-15 Jan 69] 12.3g, 23mm
REV: Eleutheria stg left leaning on column right, simpulum to left EΛEYΘEPIA
Emmett 172(1), RCV 2140v
Ex: Incitatus

Trajan CE 98-117

AR Denarius minted Rome CE 116-117, 2.82g ,20mm
REV: Virtus stg right with parazonium PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR
RIC 334
Ex: Incitatus

Vitellius CE 69

AR Denarius (July to December CE 69 issue of Rome) 3.13g 18mm
A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, Laureate head right.
Reverse - XV VIR SACR FAC - Tripod-lebes with dolphin lying right on top and raven standing right below
RCV 2201
Ex: Incitatus
This coin refers to Vitellius' past appointment to the college of 15 (XV) chief priests according to Van Meter (p.97)

Maximianus CE 285-305 Provincial Egypt

Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 8.4g 20mm, Yr. 1=CE 285-286
OBS: laur. Draped Bust rt, A K M A OVA MAΞIMIANOC CЄΒ
REV: Alexandria standing left with radiate crown holding bust of serapis, L A /* in field
Emmett 4093(1), Milne 4807

Ex: Aegean

Ex: CNG EA 137 portion of lot 318 closing 12 April 2006
From the Father Wilbur B. Dexter collection” Wilbur B. Dexter was an Anglican Catholic Priest (1919-2005) whose collection was sold by CNG in 2006
The reverse of this coin is illustrated in the photo of the lot at the CNG website.

Caracalla CE 198-217

AR Denarius , Rome mint, January – April CE 217 , 3.6g 18mm
OBS: laureate bust right, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
REV: Serapis wearing modius, holding wreath and scepter.PM TRP XX COS IIII PP
VM 65/3(VB2), RCV 6846
Ex: Aegean

Diocletian CE 284-305 Provincial Egypt

Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 7.85g 20mm
OBS: laur. Draped Bust rt, ΔΙΟΚΛΗΤΙΑΝΟС СЄΒ
REV: Athena seated holding victory, L H /A in exergue
Emmett 4032(1), Milne 5018
Ex: Aegean

Ex: CNG EA 137 portion of lot 318 closing 12 April 2006
From the Father Wilbur B. Dexter collection” Wilbur B. Dexter was an Anglican Catholic Priest (1919-2005) whose collection was sold by CNG in 2006

Julia Domna CE 193-217

AR Denarius CE 201 3.47g 19mm
REV: Isis standing right with her foot on the prow of a ship, rudder against an altar behind. She holds Horus. SAECVLI FELICITAS
VM 44, C. 174, RCV 6606
Ex: Aegean

Numerian, as Caesar CE 282-283 Provincial Egypt

Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 9.2g 20mm
OBS: laur. Draped Bust rt A K M A NOVMЄPIANOC K C
REV: Dikaiosyne left, L A (=CE 282-283)
Emmett 4015(2), Milne 4664
Ex: Aegean

Ex: CNG EA 137 portion of lot 318 closing 12 April 2006
From the Father Wilbur B. Dexter collection” Wilbur B. Dexter was an Anglican Catholic Priest (1919-2005) whose collection was sold by CNG in 2006

Probus CE 276-282 Provincial Egypt

Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 7.95g 20mm, Year 7= CE 281-282
OBS: laur. Draped cuir. Bust rt Α Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΠΡΟΒΟС СЄΒ
REV: L Z, eagle left head right with wreath
Emmett 3984(1), Milne 4640
Ex: Aegean

Ex: CNG EA 137 portion of lot 318 closing 12 April 2006
From the Father Wilbur B. Dexter collection” Wilbur B. Dexter was an Anglican Catholic Priest (1919-2005) whose collection was sold by CNG in 2006

Aemilian CE 253; Provincial Dacia

IMP C M AEMIL AEMILIANVS AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse - PROVIN CIA DACIA, Dacia standing left holding branch & parazonium, eagle & lion at sides, AN VIII in exergue. 26mm, 11.2g
Ex: Incitatus
The eagle and lion found to either side of the depiction of Dacia, are symbols for the two Legions that were assigned to Dacia, Eagle= (LEG V MACEDONICA -Potaissa, Dacia) and Lion =(LEG XIII GEMINA Apulum, Dacia ).
Please cf. http://www.romancoins.info/Content.html for more info on Legions on coins etc.
Please cf. http://www.archive.org/details/HistoryAndCoinageOfDacia for more info on Dacia.

Marcus Aurelius CE 161-180

M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII, laureate head right /
RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III S C, Aurelius standing left holding sceptre and raising kneeling figure of Italia who holds a globe.
Cohen 538. RCV 4997. Scarce. 31mm, 22.4g
Ex: Incitatus
Commemorates the deliverance of Italy from the threat of barbarian invasion resulting from the emperor’s successes in his wars against the Germanic tribes of the Danube region

Gordian III CE 238-244

AR Denarius, 2.64 g, c. CE 241

RSC 403, S2478, RIC 116


R: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI Hercules, naked, standing right, resting right hand on club set on rock, lion skin beside club

Ex: Silenos

Said to depict the "Farnese Hercules" a copy of an earlier Greek work, made for the Baths of Caracalla dedicated the year prior to Caracalla's death in CE 217. Below is a photo of the statue. The depiction on the denarius as well as the antoninianus bears a slight resemblance as you will note:

Otacilia Severa CE 244-249

AR Antoninianus, 3.35g., Rome mint, 4th officina, C.E. 247-248,

Tantalus ID#35553

o: diademed draped bust of Otacilia right, on crescent, OTACIL SEVERA AVG,

rev: Pieta standing left, right hand raised, incense box in left, PIETAS AVGVSTAE,

(RCV 9158; RIC 130), cf. "The Cambridge Hoard of 1897 Revisited" in The Celator (June 2008, 22:6, pp. 6-20) this coin is fig. 1 in the article.

Provenance: Ex: York Coins;

William C. Boyd (1840-1906) Collection,

Baldwin's Auctions (42), 26 September 2005. part of lot 590

Purchased by Boyd himself from A.H. Sadd, April 1897.

Ex Cambridge Hoard, (Cambridgeshire, England), 1897.

Boyd's cabinet card accompanying this coin.

On April 29, 1897, William C. Boyd (1840-1906) presented a paper entitled “A Find of Roman Denarii near Cambridge” to the Royal Numismatic Society. As later recorded in the published version in The Numismatic Chronicle (XVII:VI:119-126 [1897]) Boyd related that, “At the end of last month I was enabled to secure, as I believe, the whole of a small find of Roman Denarii which had been dug up a short time before in the neighborhood of Cambridge.”He listed this coin as one of two depicting Otacilia Severa that were found in this hoard.

Boyd listed 193 coins found, though the mixed hoard is recorded in Robertson’s Inventory #447 and is listed as containing 155 Denarii and 52 Antoniniani, from Clodius Albinus to Philip II, with a deposition date of C.E. 248 onwards. The explanation for the discrepancy between Boyd and Robertson is that after Boyd published his article F. W. Hasluck (1878-1920) wrote that there were a further 14 coins from the hoard that were not described by Boyd in his article including three specific types not mentioned by him.

According to Jérôme Mairat this coin belongs to the 11th and final emission in CE 249.

William C. Boyd, photograph from Baldwin's Auction Catalogue, 2005.

Seleucid; Antiochus II Theos BCE 261-246

Silver tetradrachm, Newell ESM 189, SNG Spaer 390, CSE 963, Houghton & Lorber 587.1, VF/F, Seleucia on Tigris mint, 16.55g, 29.5mm, 90o, c. 255-246 B.C.;
obverse diademed head of Antiochus I right;
reverse , Apollo seated left on omphalos, examining arrow with right, resting left hand on grounded bow, monogram outer left, monogram outer right

Roman Republic; BCE 211-208 Victoriatus

Anonymous. 211-208 BCE. AR Victoriatus (17mm, 2.82 g).
Laureate head of Jupiter right / Victory standing right, erecting trophy ROMA in ex.
Crawford 44/1 and 53/1; Sydenham 83; RSC 9. VF, test cut on edge, small marks on obverse and reverse.

EX: CNG EA 129:258 (21 Dec 2005)

cf. Schaefer, R & Friedman, K.L. "A Closer Look-Distinguishing Similar Roman Republican Coins: Part II-Anonymous Victoriati" THE CELATOR (25:4: 2011) fig. 11 page 12 THIS COIN ILLUSTRATED.

Roman Occup. Macedon; Amphipolis BCE 158-149

AR Tetradrachm, 31 mm, 16.94g

OBS: Macedonian shield, in center of which is a bust of Artemis Tauropolis r, hair bound with stephane, turned up behind, and with loose strands falling down neck, edge of drapery shown, bow and quiver over l. shoulder. around dotted circle; around rim, seven crescents, six rayed star within each, each pair separated by three pellets in pyramid form. (description from Grose)
REV: MAKEΔONΩN/ΠPΩTHΣ above and below club r in field above and below monograms. All within oak wreath to l a thunderbolt

Sear 1386v, cf. BMC 8, Grose 3708, SNG Cop 1314-1315 v.

Ex: Amphora List 88 #142 (described by D. Hendin as VF+)
Acquisition: 2005
Tantalus ID#35555

Crispus Caesar CE 317-326

TREVERI MINT, second officina CE 322-323

cuir. bust left, spear across right shldr, shield on left arm IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES

REV: globe set on altar, inscribed VO/TIS/XX, three stars above. BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, .STR. in ex. (RIC 374 R4)

Ex: York Coins

EX: Killingholme Hoard, 1993

The hoard was discovered by metal detectorists in 1993 near the village of Killingholme. The find consisted of approximately 3,800* Constantinian bronze reduced folles, mainly from mints in the Western empire and predominately struck in the A.D. 320's and early 330's. It is likely that the hoard was deposited c. A.D 333-334. *information on the number of coins found comes from the journal Britannia, Vol. 25. (1994) p. 268 reviewing "Roman Britain in 1993". The coins were studied by the British Museum before being released to the numismatic market.

Theodosius II CE 402-450

AV SOLIDUS 4.36g 20.9mm Constantinople Mint CE 430-440
OBS: facing helmeted bust with spear & shieldDN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG

REV: Constantinople seated left with globus cruciger & foot on prow

VOT XXX-MVLT XXXXΘ/CONOB/* behind chair to right

RIC X 257C

Ex: Glenn Woods

Antoninus Pius CE 138-161

AE Dupondius 11.88g, Rome Mint CE 142
RCV 4275
Ex: Silenos

Hadrian CE 117-138

AE Sestertius 23.8g Rome Mint CE 126
Van Meter 71/2, BM 1286-7, Coh. 308 (Paris), RIC 632
COS III SC Neptune stg rt foot on prow holding trident and dolphin.
thanks to Curtis Clay for the references.
Van Meter referring to a similar issue writes that this issue “refers to the safe return of Hadrian to Rome after his first series of provincial visits, ca. 126….p.129)
Ex: Eagle's Nest
Acquisition: 2005
Sold: 2007

Trebonianus Gallus CE 251-253

Billon Antoninianus, Rome mint CE 252, 3.61g.,
radiate draped bust of Gallus right, IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLLVS AVG,
rev., Libertas leaning left on a column and holding a transverse sceptre and pileus, LIBERTAS AVGG,

RIC 39, RCV 9635
Tantalus ID#35556

EX: York Coins;

Ex: William C. Boyd (1840-1906) Collection,
Baldwin's Auctions (42), 26 September 2005, portion of lot 620 (this coin is depicted on page 69 of Auction catalogue and the photo below is from the catalogue).
Boyd's cabinet card for this coin.

Purchased by Boyd himself from Spink, March 1891.

According to J. Mairat this coin belongs to the fourth emission issued at the beginning of CE 253, not 252 as noted by Sear in RCV.

William C. Boyd, photograph from Baldwin's Auction Catalogue, 2005

Titus CE 79-81; Provincial Judea Capta Issue

Titus CE 79-81 (struck as Caesar c. CE 71-73) AE 20, 6.82g (found in Jordan)
O: Laureate hd of Titus r. AVTOKP TITOC KAICAP
R: Nike stands r with l. foot on helmet, she writes witih r. hand on shield hanging from palm tree, IOYΔAIAΣ EAΛωKYIAΣ (“Judea Vanquished”),
AJC II, 288, 2. HENDIN 743,
Meshorer reports the O & R inscriptions as AYTOKP TIT OΣ KAIΣAP and IOYΔAIAΣ EAΛΩKYIAΣ.
SNG VI:464-476 (four of the examples bear countermarks) record the following variations as well.
O: AVTOKPTITO ΣKAIΣAP And then the following reverse inscription variations:
IOVΔAIACEA ΛωKYIAC [This is the reverse inscription born by this coin.]

It appears that this design appeared between CE 71-73. There is a sestertius of similar design minted in CE 72 (H.793) that helps lead to this supposition. The title AUTOKRATOR/IMPERATOR was granted Titus in CE 71 therefore this supports the initial date of CE 71 as this title appears on the obs of this coin. The maximum period of issue could be CE 71-79 as Titus acquired the title SEBASTOS/AUGUSTUS upon the death of his father, and this title is not part of the inscription. It is fair to say, that the issuance period for this coin is indeed CE 71-79, though the earlier period may well be likely and acceptable also. The range of CE 69-81 as seen in some descriptions is unlikely for the reasons noted here.

Ex: D. Connors

First Revolt CE 66-70/73

Date: Year 4 = 69/70 C.E.
Denomination: Æ 1/8 Sheqel.
Diameter: 20 mm
Weight: 6.93 g
Obverse: Chalice with pearled rim; Hebrew around (to the redemption of Zion).
L’Geulat Tziyon לגאלת ציון
Reverse: Lulav flanked by an etrog on either side, surrounded by Hebrew (Year Four).
Shnot ‘Arba’ah שנת ארבע
Reference: Hendin 670. AJC II 262, 30.

EX: ALEX G. MALLOY AUCTION XXIV ( 18 March 1988) Lot 273, catalogue description: "AE eighth shekel of 69 AD. Jerusalem. O: Lulav, etrogs & inscr., Hebrew. Rx: Chalice & inscr. in Hebrew. Lower portion not struck up, Nice grade for these. Mesh.163 Hendin GBC 131....VF $175"

In an email from J.P. Fontanille, he stated that this example is the "first time I see this strike error on a year 4 bronze!" (August 2009).

According to David Hendin coins such as this example and others like it were the first "siege coins" ever minted (Guide to Biblical Coins, p. 249)

He goes on to say that "These coins were struck by the Jews beseiged in Jerusalem while the city was surrounded by the Roman army under Titus, not long before the destruction of Jerusalem itself."

As Meshorer writes "In the fourth year of the Jewish War, Jerusalem was also beset by a crisis,...The city's large population (estimated at 500,000-1,000,000) certainly continued to lead their daily lives, despite the difficulties, and holy worship at the Temple also continued in its regular routine, including the offering of sacrifices and the collection of the half-Shekel tribute....the main use of money was for secular needs, and for this purpose it was permissible to deviate and to mint 'ma'ahs of danger' (Jerusalem Talmud, Ma'aser Sheni, 52, 4) i.e., 'emergency coins', bronze substitutes for the silver shekels. They were used for ordinary trade and the leaders of the revolt were the guarantors of their value...." (A Treasury of Jewish Coins, p. 130).

Modern Israeli Coin 5 Agorot (1985-date) modeled exactly on the lulav and etrogim depiction on the First Revolt 1/8 Sheqel coin as illustrated above.

Roman Republic/Imperatorial Period

Manlius Cordius Rufus
AR silver denarius. Struck 46 BCE.
RVFVS III VIR, jugate heads of the Dioscuri right; stars above.
Reverse - MN CORDIVS, Venus Verticordia holding scales and sceptre; on her shoulder, Cupid.
RCV 440, Crawford 463/1b; RSC Cordia 1, Sydenham 976c, Babelon 2 Cordia, Rolland 408, BMC 4037. 19mm, 3.8g.

In BCE 46, the Battle of Thapsus was fought. Consuls were G. Julius Caesar for the 3rd time and M. Aemilius Lepidus for the first.

Also in that year was the Roman adoption of the Julian Calendar.

This issue was struck on a scale commensurate with Rome’s requirements at the time of Caesar’s quadruple triumph when 5,000 denarii were paid to each legionary and 10,000 to each centurion. The Venus reverse is probably intended as a tribute to Caesar whose gens claimed descent from that goddess. Sear, The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators at p. 45.

Helena CE 324-328/330

AE 3 3.4 g 19mm THESSALONIKA Mint CE 326-328
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust of Helena right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch. Exe: SMTSA.
Vagi 2901v, CHK Thessalonika 823 (CE 324-330)
RIC VII Thessalonika 159 C1

Philip I CE 244-249

AR Antoninianus minted at Rome CE 249 2.91g 20 mm
IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
SAECVLVM NOVVM, Hexastyle temple with statue of Roma within.
RIC 25b, RSC 198. RCV 8963
This is a simplified depiction of the Temple of Roma, part of Hadrian’s remarkable double Temple of Venus & Roma completed under Antoninus in CE 141.

Tetricus CE 270-274

Bronze antoninianus, RCV 11258, RIC 148, C 207, worn reverse die, Cologne mint, 3.01g, 18.8mm,
obverse IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse VIRTVS AVGG, soldier standing left holding spear in left and resting right hand on shield on ground; slightly irregular flan; scarce
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins

Trajan Decius CE 249-251

AR Antoninianus, Group II, Rome
Obv: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG. Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ABVNDANTIA AVG Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopiae held in both hands, RIC IV, Part III, 10b 22mm X 25mm, 4.71g.
Ex: L. Tripodis; Sydney,Australia, March 2007
Ex: Jean Elsen & ses Fils, s.a. (Brussels), Auction 85, portion Lot 320, September 2005.

Julia Soaemias CE 218-222

AR Denarius—struck by Elagabalus, CE 220.
rev.- VENVS CAELESTIS; Venus on throne
RSC 14, RCV 7720, 19mm; 2.27 g
Ex: R. Bernobich

Julia Maesa CE 218-225

AR Denarius—struck by Elagabalus, CE 218-220
obv.- IVLIA MAESA AVG; draped bust right
rev.- PVDICITIA; Pudicitia seated left
RSC 36, RCV 7756 19mm; 1.53 g; thin, underweight flan
Ex: R. Bernobich

Constantine I CE 307-337

AE Follis, 3.96g, Rome Mint, CE 310-313
Ex: R. Bernobich from a lot acquired from Jean Elsen & ses Fils, s.a. (Brussels)

Constantine I CE 307-337

AE Follis, 4.31 g, London Mint, CE 310
RIC VI London 122 Scarce
Ex: R. Bernobich from a lot acquired from Jean Elsen & ses Fils, s.a. (Brussels)

Constantine I CE 307-337

AE Follis, 4.14 g, Lyon Mint, CE 309-310
RIC VI Lyon 309 Rare
Ex: R. Bernobich from a lot acquired from Jean Elsen & ses Fils, s.a. (Brussels)

Gallienus CE 253-268

AE Antoninianus, Rome Mint, 3.7 g, CE 265-267
R: SECVRIT PERPET , H in field
RCV 10359, RIC 280
Ex: cameleoncoins

Aurelian CE 270-275

AE Antoninianus, Rome Mint, 3.46 g, CE 274-275
R: ORIENS AVG/ I in field/ XXI R in ex.
RCV 11569, RIC 64
Ex: cameleoncoins

Diocletian CE 284-305 Provincial Egypt

Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 7.9g, CE 288-289
O: laur dr bust rightA K ΓOVAΛ ΔIOKΛHTIANOC C Є B
R: Alexandria stg l holds bust of Sarapis and sceptre
Emmett 4025 (1)
Ex: bbucklan
Diocletian ceased minting Greek Imperial issues from Alexandria in CE 296 whereby Alexandria then began issuing standard imperial coinage and continued into the Byzantine era until the Muslim conquest (when it continued work under its new rulers).

Severus Alexander CE 222-235

AE Dupondius, Rome Mint, CE 228, 10.91g
RIC 601, RCV 8052
Of this historical issue Van Meter writes that it refers to the "monetary reforms of ca. CE 229, which involved an expanded issue of dupondii" (p.214). Sear writes after 8032 that "The fact that the commemoration of Alexander's 'restoration' of the coinage is confined to the dupondius would seem to suggest a connection with this denomination, though the precise nature of such a reform is certainly not immediately apparent. A refurbishment of the mint itself is an alternative possibility, though it is curious that this was not recorded on a fuller range of denominations." (p. 660), after 8052 he continues "If the reference is to a renovation of the mint itself then this seemingly incongruous reverse type might represent a statue erected at the facility in honour of the emperor."
This coin has been a part of my collection since 1974 when it was purchased for $7.50
Ex: Ex: Max Schlachter (1919-1987)/Plaza Stamp & Coin.
86 Congress Street
Bridgeport, CT